Temperature in Tundra

Tundra ecosystems, which exist in the Arctic and on mountain summits with a cold, windy climate and little precipitation, are treeless. Summers bring outbursts of wildflowers as tundra areas are blanketed by snow for most of the year.

The coldest of the biomes is tundra. The tundra is comparable to a desert in that it receives minimal precipitation. Tundra covers North America, Europe, and Siberia in Asia, and may be found just below the ice caps of the Arctic.

The tundra biome encompasses most of Alaska and about half of Canada. Tundra is likewise seen in high altitudes around the globe, notably at the tops of mountains. Summers are typically hot, but the temperatures are frequently quite cold.

With mean temperatures of below 0°C for six to ten months of the year, tundra winters are long, dark, and frigid. Permafrost is a layer of permanently frozen earth that forms below the surface due to the low temperatures. The tundra biome is defined by its permafrost.

Summers in the tundra bring just a few inches of thawing to the top layer of soil, providing vegetation with a growing surface.

Precipitation in the tundra includes melted snow and totals 150 to 250 mm per year. That’s less than the majority of the world’s greatest deserts! The tundra, due to the low temperatures and limited water evaporation, is typically a wet environment. Summers are wet and foggy in most of the arctic, with water accumulating in bogs and ponds.

The tundra’s vegetation has evolved to survive the harsh weather and short growing season. The tundra is dominated by mosses, sedges, and lichens, with a few trees thrown in for good measure. Snow protects the trees that manage to develop because they are close to the ground.

People in Tundra

Although some people dwell in sections of the tundra, it is primarily for industrial activities like working on oil platforms. The presence of humans may and often does impact the delicate balance of the tundra ecosystem, even if these communities are generally tiny and sparsely populated than other man-made regions.

Many tundra-dwelling indigenous peoples follow the practices of a major source of survival, such as some tribes that exist on the entire bodies of reindeer in tundra areas.

Animals And Birds That Live In The Tundra Biome

The tundra is home to a wide range of animals throughout the year. Winter weather requires them to have special adaptations that help them survive. Short legs, long hair, and a thick fur coat are just a few of the characteristics. Their tails are small, and their feet are huge and hairy. Additional fat insulation is also present in animals such as rats and birds.

White fur is common in animals, giving them a snowy appearance. Little tundra animals breed in huge numbers every ten or thirteen years. Because of the expansion in their food supply, the bigger creatures increase in number.

Eventually, the little animals die of starvation because they have no more plants to eat. Plants can grow back after the bigger animals die. Long, frigid winters are accommodated by animals, which breed and birth pups quickly in the summer.

Since food is scarce during the winter, many animals hibernate. Certain animals, notably birds, migrate south during the winter. Since the temperatures are so low, reptiles and amphibians are scarce or absent. The population constantly changes due to constant immigration and emigration.

Land Animals

Caribou (reindeer in Eurasia) herds are enormous, feeding on lichens and vegetation throughout North America. During breeding seasons, the tundra attracts migrating creatures such as caribou and ducks. These creatures return south when the weather turns colder to avoid the harshest conditions.

Musk-oxen herds are also smaller in size. The predators of the tundra include wolves, wolverines, arctic foxes, and polar bears. Snowshoe rabbits and lemmings are two smaller animals.

The tundra’s major herbivore is represented by the lemming. The snowy owl is a migratory predator that responds to lemming population fluctuations and reigns as a partially migratory predator.

Some that eat plants, and others that eat animals, fish, insects, and birds are among the main sorts of creatures seen in the tundra.

Plants and animals in tundras

Mountain tundra is home to mountain goats, sheep, marmots, and birds that feed on low-lying plants and insects. Cushion plants, for example, can be found in the mountain zones by growing in rock depressions, which are warmer and shielded from the wind.

Arctic foxes, polar bears, gray wolves, caribou, snow geese, and musk oxen are among the animals that live in the Arctic tundra, which has an average temperature of -30 to 20 degrees Fahrenheit (-34 to -6 degrees Celsius). When the sun shines for up to 24 hours per day, the summer growing season is barely 50 to 60 days.

The tundra’s harsh conditions force the few species of plants and animals that live there to cling to life. Environmental stresses like less snow cover and warmer temperatures caused by global warming are very harmful to them.

Climate of the Tundra

The tundra’s typical climate is defined by extremely cold temperatures.

The arctic tundra, which resembles a frozen desert in the northern hemisphere surrounding the North Pole, is distinguished by extremely low and dry conditions. In addition, winter months may have weeks of no sunlight, with extremely low temperatures.

Since so many plants and animals need this period for survival, the sun can shine virtually constantly throughout the summer months.

On the highest peaks of the world, however, alpine tundra may be found. These places are defined by freezing temperatures and dry air, but they are found at higher altitudes than the arctic tundra.

The alpine tundra is typically exposed to greater amounts of sunlight at a time because the air and environment are thinner, allowing light to penetrate more deeply.

The tundra climate provides a low-species-diversity environment that supports quick growth. The tundra biome’s animals and plants have evolved to thrive in such a harsh environment.

Perma defrost

With the warmer global climate, the permafrost in the Arctic is degrading, which is vital for much of the region’s distinct ecosystem. Permafrost extends some 1,476 feet (450 meters) below the surface and is a layer of frozen soil and dead plants. It is frozen year-round in most of the Arctic.

During the summer, the surface layer over permafrost thaws in the southern parts of the Arctic, spawning bogs and shallow lakes that attract a boom of wildlife. Millions of migrating birds come to feed on the bogs, which are swarming with insects.

The autumn freeze arrives later, if at all, as a result of global warming, and the southern Arctic permafrost is melting more quickly. Native animals may be affected by shrubs and spruce that were once unable to grow on permafrost.

The melting of permafrost is also a major source of concern, according to some experts. About one and a half times the amount of carbon now in the atmosphere, as well as significant amounts of methane, a major greenhouse gas, are found in frozen soil.

The tundra used to be a carbon sink, capturing a large quantity of carbon dioxide from the air via photosynthesis. The amount of this greenhouse gas in the atmosphere was kept from growing by this process.

The tundra has flipped from a carbon sink to a carbon contributor in recent years as permafrost melt and dead plant material decompose and release greenhouse gases. As a result, the planet is less capable of halting greenhouse gases from accumulating, as well as the tundra is contributing to their accumulation.

What else the permafrost contains and what may be released as it warms are still unknown to scientists. It has also been discovered that it is the planet’s biggest repository of mercury, with potentially harmful consequences if it is released into the environment.

Temperature of the Tundra

The tundra is one of the world’s least inhabited regions, with temperatures that are by far the lowest of all the world’s biomes.

Windy tundra conditions are also recognized, with typical sustained wind speeds of roughly 30-60 mph. This happens at both low- and high-altitude mountaintops in flat, arctic tundra regions.

Winter temperatures in the arctic tundra are about -34° C (-30° F) and summer temperatures are roughly 3° to 12° C (37° to 54° F).

Winter temperature averages of −28°C (−18°F) may be seen in the highest parts of the arctic tundra, with drops as low as −50°C (−58°F). When conditions are far too harsh, most living creatures in the arctic tundra have a 50 to 60 day summer season during which they focus on growth and the search for nutrients.

Temperatures in alpine tundra areas are often below freezing at night and significant wind patterns frequently severely impact the ability to live, however these areas have a longer growing season each year, around 180 days. In the warmer months, temperatures range from -12 to 10° C (10° to 50° F).

Threats to Tundra

Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming. Permafrost is melting at a rapid pace in the tundra, and each year several feet of tundra are lost as a result of global warming, which is largely the result of pollution and greenhouse gases.

The plant mass decomposes and releases carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, which is one of the greatest current dangers to the arctic tundra, as a result of overall warming temperatures in the world.

Towns and more roads have sprung up as a result of increased migration to the tundra for employment in mines and oil wells. These complications have forced animals to relocate to conventional feeding and denning places. Polar bears have been famished in numerous cases.

Because of the abundant insects, tens of thousands of migrating birds come to the tundra. Pesticides reach many of the animals through the food chain that lives on the tundra, and have been used to control the hordes of insects.

Air, lakes, and rivers have been polluted by mining and oil drilling pollution. The flora around some Russian nickel mines have perished as a result of the land’s toxicity. Permafrost melts when the sun touches the ruts. The ruts expand as a result of erosion, resulting in gullies formation. Several tracks have become lakes since World War II.


Tundra biomes have a precipitation ceiling of 10 inches per year, with a few notable exceptions. Tundra areas near the oceans or enormous bodies of water are known as sections. Annual precipitation levels may reach 20 inches. Nome, Alaska, for example, is located in a tundra biome.

There were 18.4 inches of precipitation in Nome. Point Barrow, a city in the northern United States, receives 4,3 inches of rain every year on the other hand.

Coastal tundra regions are primarily defined by a lot of fog, which contributes to the higher precipitation levels. Air enters from nearby water bodies, and as it approaches the land, the fog develops. The moving air becomes fog after it reaches its dew point.

Location of the Tundra

Tundra biomes may be divided into two categories: one in the Arctic Circle in the northern hemisphere, and the other on the world’s highest peaks.

The Arctic Tundra: The world’s North Pole is located in the northern hemisphere, as one would expect. It is found between 55° and 70° N, and covers almost 20% of the world’s land surface. It is one of the world’s smallest populated places and is very cold.

It may be seen on mountaintops at too chilly an environment for trees to develop, especially at the top of the mountains.

Although it is not technically classified as tundra, the Antarctic area is substantially colder than the Arctic. Because of the yearly average temperature of -70°F (-56°C), the ecosystem there is totally different from that found elsewhere.


There are a few varieties of plants found in the tundra biome. Plants, of course, need sunlight and warmth in order to develop and flourish. Sunlight and heat are scarce in the tundra biome, which includes the summer months. Until the month of June, when the sun is low in the sky, the ground is usually covered with snow.

Because the permafrost cannot allow plants to send their roots underground past the layer of soil, only plant species with shallow roots systems can survive in the tundra. For a maximum of 90 days, the soil layer is completely free of ice. As a result, the tundra plants only experience a short growing season.

Tundra biome has approximately 1,700 plant species despite its short growing season and freezing temperatures. Lichens, mosses, grasses, and low-growing shrubs are among the plant groups that thrive in the tundra environment. Some biomes have few trees, while others have none at all.

Plants that can grow close together and low to the ground have special characteristics that allow them to survive harsh temperatures. These tundra plants thrive in an environment that enables them to withstand the impacts of extremely low temperatures and minimize the damage caused by tiny snow and ice particles carried along by the dry winds.

Several plants have developed the ability to photosynthesize in harsh conditions and grow beneath the layer of snow. At the start of summer, the flowering plants create flowers quickly. To survive in this environment, certain plants have a lower leaf structure.

Of course, plant leaf surfaces lose water. As a result, they may preserve the moisture they’ve stored by growing little leaves and limiting their surface areas.

Arctic Moss, Bear Berry, Arctic Willow, Diamond-Leaf Willow, Caribou Moss, Labrador Tea, Tufted Saxifrage, and Pasque flower are all examples of plant species that grow in the tundra biome.

Precipitation of the Tundra

Since the tundra is effectively too cold for rain to fall, it gets very little precipitation. Because of the large yearly amounts of rainfall, tundra is often referred to as the “frozen desert.”

Plants and animals can, however, survive on little precipitation since the process of evaporation is not as efficient as it is in warmer places since there is so much frozen ground and the air is very cold. Snowfall occurs throughout the winter, while rain or fog occur throughout the summer. Water is stored in the tundra by permafrost and bogs.